Surgery can often eliminate ulcerative colitis. But that usually means removing your entire colon and rectum (proctocolectomy).
In most cases, this involves a procedure called restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch anal anastomosis with a temporary diverting ileostomy in the 1st stage. In the 2nd stage the ileostomy is closed to restore the bowel continuity . This procedure eliminates the need to wear a bag to collect stool. Your surgeon constructs a pouch from the end of your small intestine. The pouch is then attached directly to your anus, allowing you to pass stool relatively normally.
Surgery may be needed as an emergency procedure in situation where either the disease cannot be controlled by medications or there is bleeding or there has been a perforation. In such situation a subtotal colectomy with ileostomy is carried out as a 1st stage procedure followed by 2nd stage completion restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch anal anastomosis with covering ileostomy. Later on in the 3rd stage the ileostomy is closed to restore the bowel continuity.
In some cases a pouch is not possible. Instead, surgeons create a permanent opening in your abdomen (ileal stoma) through which stool is passed for collection in an attached bag.